Giuliano Milani is Professore aggregato (Tenured Assistant Professor) of Medieval History at the Sapienza University of Rome. His main research interest is the history of Italian cities from 12th to 14th century. Within this topic he has particularly focused on the exclusion of political enemies, social conflicts, mechanisms of government, criminal justice and practical uses of writing and images. He is currently preparing a monograph about the defamatory paintings (Pittura infamante) in 13th century Italy and its genealogy. He was appointed as: professeur invité at the École Normale Superieure (2010) and visting professor at the University of Notre Dame (2012). Among his most recent publications are: L’esclusione dal comune. Conflitti e bandi politici a Bologna e in altre città italiane tra XII e XIV secolo (Nuovi Studi Storici 63), Roma 2003; I comuni italiani. Secoli XII-XIV (Quadrante 126), Roma-Bari 2005, 20094; Before the Buongoverno: The Medieval Painting of Brescia’s Broletto as Visual Register, in: C. Dartmann / T. Scharff / C. F. Weber (eds.), Zwischen Pragmatik und Performanz – Dimensionen mittelalterlicher Schriftkultur (Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy 18), Turnhout 2011, pp. 319-350; Bologna (Il Medioevo nelle Città Italiane 3), Spoleto 2012. The title of his paper is: „Greed vs. Envy. The resentment against rich people in the age of Dante“.